If you’ve been following along with parts one and two, you’ll now have Git installed on your local machine, a remote “repository” server (hosted by DreamHost, in the example provided), and a remote “live” server (hosted by MediaTemple, in the example provided).
This installment details the process of setting up your ExpressionEngine site as a Git repository. Note that in the following examples
$> denotes the bash prompt, and should not be entered.
Step 1. Create your local Git repository
Open the Terminal, navigate to the directory where you’d like to create your new website, and enter the following:
$> mkdir example_website $> cd example_website $> git init
The creation of the new directory could just as easily have been accomplished via the Finder, it’s the last command that interests us. With that line you’ve created a new Git repository for your website.
Let’s have a quick nose around to see what just happened:
$> ls -a . .. .git
Unlike Subversion, Git won’t pollute every directory on your website with hidden folders. Instead, everything is housed within a single
.git directory, in the root of your working directory.
One of the many advantages to this arrangement is that it makes the process of updating EE a whole lot easier; no more accidentally deleting a bunch of hidden
.svn folders, and screwing up your site’s version control.
Step 2. Ignore unwanted files
By default, Git will track every file or directory that finds its way into your working directory. You can control this behaviour by setting up “ignore” rules.
There are a number of different ways of setting up ignore rules, and the most appropriate choice typically depends on whether you always want to ignore particular files, or only wish to ignore them for a specific project.
For the purposes of this walkthrough, we’ll just use a simple
.gitignore file, with a single rule telling Git to ignore
$> echo '.DS_Store' > .gitignore
Step 3. Create your remote Git repository
Open a new Terminal tab, and
ssh into your DreamHost repository (the following command assumes you set up shell shortcuts, as described at the end of part two):
$> ssh dh
I keep all my Git repositories in a general
git-repos directory, so let’s set that up:
$> mkdir git-repos $> cd git-repos $> mkdir example_website $> cd example_website
You now have an
example_website directory, ready to accommodate your new remote Git repository. This time though, you need to initialise a “bare” repository.
$> git --bare init
Git typically assumes you’ll be using a repository as your working directory. As such, a standard repository contains all of your project files, along with the aforementioned
.git directory, which contains the bare repository files.
A remote repository isn’t interested in your working files, it just needs to know what’s changed, in order to keep track of everything. This is what “bare” means to Git — just the repository itself.
Step 4. Link your local repository to the remote repository
Switch back to your local repository Terminal tab, and enter the following (assuming you’re using DreamHost for you remote repository):
$> git remote add origin ssh://shell_username@account_name.dreamhosters.com/~/git-repos/example_website
This automatically adds some code to your local
.git/config file, linking your local repository to your remote repository.
Step 5. Create your “live” Git repository
The “live” site should be a working copy of your remote Git repository. The file paths in the following instructions are specific to MediaTemple’s (dv) server — adapt them as required for your preferred host.
Open another tab in the Terminal,
ssh into your live server, and navigate to the main website directory (not the HTTP documents directory):
$> ssh mt $> cd /var/www/vhosts/example_website/
Clone your remote repository:
$> git clone ssh://shell_username@account_name.dreamhosters.com/~/git-repos/example_website
This creates a new directory,
example_website, which become the main
httpdocs directory for your website:
$> mv httpdocs httpdocs_old $> mv example_website httpdocs
Step 6. Get your feet wet
The next installment will contain a more detail description of my Git / EE workflow. In the meantime, here’s something to whet your appetite.
The commands below perform the following actions, which will be typical of your day-to-day workflow:
- Create a new file in your local working directory.
- Add the file to your local Git repository.
- Commit the file to your local Git repository, with a brief description of the work carried out.
- Push the changes to the remote Git repository.
- Pull the changes from the remote Git repository to the live site.
In your “local” tab, enter the following:
$> touch 'example_file.txt' $> git status # Untracked files: .gitignore example_file.txt $> git commit -a -m "Created .gitignore file, and example_file.txt" $> git push
Switch to your “live” tab, and pull the changes from the remote repository, to your live server:
$> git pull
Next time out I’ll be providing a proper explanation of the above workflow, with some more detailed examples of the everyday practicalities of using Git.